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The use of animals in scientific research
Chimpanzees are the most tool-using non-human great ape, and . One problem with studying today’s animals and applying those findings to their ancestors is that their line has evolved too. The did not look like today’s chimpanzees, and probably did not act quite like them. However, chimpanzees and gorillas adapted to environments that have not remarkably changed for the past 8-10 million years, and it is unlikely that they have dramatically changed over that time. Orangutans are similar. Scientists have argued that since there is little evidence of morphological change in those great apes in the intervening years since they split from the human line, particularly in their cranial capacity, that they probably act similarly today and have similar capacities to their distant ancestors. Today’s chimps have . They make and use tools, and an . All great apes have and some even .
Until fossils were recognized for what they were, the (c. 541 to 485 mya) was considered to have produced the earliest known fossils, and that situation vexed scientists from Darwin onward. If animals just came into existence from nothing, the Creationist arguments of Darwin’s time may have had some validity. Darwin attributed the lack of Precambrian fossils to the geological record’s imperfection. As this essay’s previous sections have shown, scientists have filled many gaps and Darwin’s theory has held up well.
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Research Strategy: Upload the Essay here. Describe the applicant’s innovative vision for, and the significance of, the HIV/AIDS biomedical or behavioral problem to be addressed, and the applicant's qualifications to engage in groundbreaking research. The essay should describe the individual's view of the major challenges in HIV/AIDS biomedical or behavioral research to which he/she can make seminal contributions. No detailed scientific plan should be provided since the research strategy is expected to evolve during the tenure of the grant. The essay should include the following sections in the order given with the headings as shown below:
Japanese importers place a premium on beef with ultra-white fat, which is difficult for New Zealand ranchers to achieve because they fatten their cattle on pasture. (Grass is rich in the antioxidant vitamin beta-carotene, which lends a healthy, creamy color to meat fat.) In a recent experiment, New Zealand researchers experimented with taking cattle off pasture and fattening them American-style on grain. Because grain is more expensive in New Zealand than it is in the States, grain-feeding was limited to less than 2 months. The experiment failed. The fat color did not change appreciably, even though serum levels of beta-carotene dropped 97 percent. What's more, 1) the animals weighed less than animals that were allowed to stay on pasture, 2) their meat was tougher, and 3) the meat lost more moisture when cooked.
Why do scientists use animals in research? - the APS
Scientists are unanimous that the Western Hemisphere’s indigenous peoples primarily came from East Asia, but there has been a cottage industry for centuries proposing other ideas. When Thomas Jefferson sent the expedition to North America’s west coast in 1804 to , they were alerted to find the lost tribes of Israel. But genetic, anatomical, archeological, and other evidence has long since settled the issue of where American Indians came from, and by far the leading hypothesis is that humans migrated to North and South America beginning about 15 kya, and there may have been a migration along the Pacific coastline, which continued the . As the , a corridor between them formed and humans walked to North America about 11 kya. Those arrivals founded the . The sudden disappearance of virtually all the megafauna of North and South America followed those humans, particularly those that came by land and spread. That situation is where the original “” label was used.
From about 32 kya to 22 kya, prevailed in Europe. That culture produced the and art such as the . By 20 kya, . But as far as human expansion is concerned, the Gravettian (and related cultures) are most notorious as mammoth hunters extraordinaire for those that lived on the near the ice sheets. To , they could not swim to Sahul, but flourished everywhere else they could get to. At , they were the ultimate hunter-gatherer kill. Also, near the ice sheets, meat could be stored in the ground. Cro-Magnons did just that, and that “freezer” full of meat led to the first seasonally sedentary humans. It long predated the Domestication Revolution when people could be sedentary year-round, but while the megafauna lasted, the first signs of what came later appeared as Cro-Magnons created villages around frozen mammoth meat. Gravettians hunted along migration routes and set traps and ambushes for mammoths. For thousands of years, mammoths were the primary focus of Gravettian hunters, and many scientists believe that humans at least . Gravettians probably used the bow and arrow, and using poisoned arrows on mammoths would have been child’s play, not a hazardous undertaking. They also tended to focus on the easy meat: the young, relatively defenseless, tender mammoths. Killing the offspring alone would have driven the slowly reproducing mammoths to extinction, and as the interglacial period began around 15 kya, there would have been new pressures on mammoths. One of them was that fewer mammoths meant that they were not terraforming their environments like they used to, and the warming climate probably reduced their range. For a mammoth facing humans, there was literally no place to hide (except maybe in the living room), and there is little reason to think that hunters would have eased up when mammoth numbers dwindled. If anything, their efforts would have to get the last ones, as they competed and fought over the final mammoths. In one lifetime or even several, the changes would have been barely noticeable, if at all. There was simply no way out for mammoths, and they went extinct south of the European ice sheets under the ministrations of Cro-Magnon hunters. More evidence of their fate is some mammoths surviving in refugia: islands where humans did not arrive until thousands of years later. mammoths survived on in the chain off of Alaska until less than six kya, and went extinct when humans arrived. Several hundred apparently full-sized mammoths survived on near Siberia and went extinct less than five kya, when humans arrived. In today's France and Spain, Gravettians also semi-settled along the migration routes of reindeer and red deer. From Spain across Europe, into today's Russia, Gravettians hunted migrating herds, and not only the mammoth was driven to extinction, but also the wooly rhino, the Irish elk, the musk ox, and steppe bison were driven to extinction as the ice sheets retreated. Neanderthals had been ambush hunting in similar fashion, and those animals, like the African megafauna, grew wary of humans, and killing those animals probably took planning and guile.
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Should animals be used in research? | Debates | …
As scientific investigations deal with the human line, the issues increasingly become more complex and difficult to untangle and assess. This is largely because of human consciousness, which is a wild card, something that if not different in kind, is vastly different in degree, at least for land animals; . Designing falsifiable hypotheses for testing human behavior and consciousness has provided challenges not seen in other sciences, and experiments performed on our primate cousins have also become more humane. Dissecting chimp brains while they are still alive is as ethically unacceptable today as doing it to humans. Even today, data on the effects of cold and altitude on humans was primarily gleaned from . Today’s scientists who study human consciousness and its relationship to physical reality have been limited by ethics and what is perhaps the primary limitation: in studying human consciousness, scientists are studying themselves. The ideal of objective examination of the material world is hampered by , and an objective examination of human consciousness, by , may well be an impossible goal.
should animals be used for research, ..
Some scientists treat every proboscidean extinction as a unique mystery, unrelated to other proboscidean extinctions, and climate and resulting vegetation changes are hypothesized as agents of extinction (or other causes invoked), when the most probable cause stares at them each morning in the mirror. The devil in the details, but regarding the megafauna extinctions, some specialists cannot seem to discern a very clear pattern. Scientists, because they are human, have an inherent conflict of interest when attributing such catastrophes to non-human causes. During the remainder of this essay, it will become evident that there is a human penchant for absolving one’s in-group of responsibility for catastrophes and crimes committed against the out-group, and , scientists, and other professionals regularly engage in such interest-conflicted acts, whether they were defending their species, race, gender, nation, class, ideology, ethnicity, or profession. That in-group/out-group difference in treatment has a long history and probably goes back to the beginnings of territorial social animals.
Should animals be used for scientific research
After Africa began colliding with Asia, about 18 mya Asian animals quickly invaded and dominated Africa. The two primary exceptions were , both of which prospered at home in Africa and in Eurasia. Proboscideans did even better; they did not only become prominent in Eurasia, but they also migrated to North America by 16.5 mya. , as soon as they could, and quickly succeeded in all South American biomes, from rainforest to grasslands to mountains. They beat apes to the Western Hemisphere by 16.5 million years. Elephants have and . Their huge size and prehensile trunks, as well as their ability to eat a wide variety of vegetation, let proboscideans flourish everywhere that they possibly could. They even as a force. Until humans arrived, proboscideans were the most intelligent, adaptable, and successful land mammals ever and arguably outperformed the dinosaurs. But after nearly 20 million years of global success, they nearly all went extinct soon after encountering behaviorally modern humans. They went extinct in the Western Hemisphere, and there has long been controversy among scientists whether humans caused it, although the debate is fading as evidence of human agency becomes clearer.
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