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– Existentialism and Humanism (1946)
“But for existentialists there is no love other than the deeds of love… there is no genius other than that which is expressed in works of art; the genius of Proust resides in the totality of his works; the genius of Racine is found in the series of his tragedies, outside of which there is nothing.
It is sometimes suggested, therefore, that existentialism just is thisbygone cultural movement rather than an identifiable philosophicalposition; or, alternatively, that the term should be restricted toSartre's philosophy alone. But while a philosophical definition ofexistentialism may not entirely ignore the cultural fate of the term,and while Sartre's thought must loom large in any account ofexistentialism, the concept does pick out a distinctive cluster ofphilosophical problems and helpfully identifies a relatively distinctcurrent of twentieth- and now twenty-first-century philosophicalinquiry, one that has had significant impact on fields such astheology (through Rudolf Bultmann, Paul Tillich, Karl Barth, andothers) and psychology (from Ludwig Binswanger and Medard Boss to OttoRank, R. D. Laing, and Viktor Frankl). What makes this current ofinquiry distinct is not its concern with “existence” ingeneral, but rather its claim that thinking about humanexistence requires new categories not found in the conceptualrepertoire of ancient or modern thought; human beings can beunderstood neither as substances with fixed properties, nor assubjects interacting with a world of objects.
Jean-Paul Sartre > By Individual Philosopher > Philosophy
(Descartes famous formula) 2) Subjectivity as philosophical starting point (existentialism) is the only theory that a) does not (i.e., essentialistically, in a predetermined manner) reduce man to an object (objectification into an ensemble of determined reactions in no way distinguished from the ensemble of qualities and phenomena which constitute a table or a chair or a stone.); and the only theory that b) accords man as an ensemble of values distinct from the material realm, as a free, responsible, historical configuration or existence (pp.
Being-For-Itself - Being has severaldimensions. Being-for-itself is defined "as being what it is notand not being what it is" (Sartre, 1956: lxv). It is ourpotentiality to be more than we are being. The For-Itself isperpetually designing itself to be the In-Itself. If Daveis In-Itself, and David is For-Itself, we can say the following: Daveis being David, which Dave is not, and at the same time Dave what Daveis. I am a plurality: Dave is part of my being, and David ispart of my being, and so is the nothingness that I have negated inboth Dave and David. I see a certain lack in David, but a number oflacks no longer available to David. David is a line of flight awayfrom Dave; fleeing the being David was, and fleeing the being whichDavid is not. David is not a meat-eater, not an alcohol consumer, andnot a Harley owner. Can I be joyful without Harley> I am the beingDavid, along with the being Dave which I am denying in acts ofnihilation. Being-For-Itself is an act of my self reflection of Davidmaking a conscious act to become what I am not yet being; Dave iscompleting himself in becoming David. For example, Dave is aworkaholic (and write-a-holic) who is in David about to becomebalanced (in work, leisure, spirit, joy and passion). David-For-Itself reflect upon parts of David, such as finding balance,that is not yet. While being Dave, I had this wondrousHarley-Davidson motorcycle. To become David, I sold the Hawg, stoppedwearing all black clothes, black boots, and headed off to a newadventure. Being-For-Itself became redefined as post-Harleylifestyle. For-Itself is a witness of reflection, reflectingupon a form of flight in the face of being (Sartre, 1956: 1213).Post-Harley is a line of flight by Being-For-Itself, without Harley.
Essay Review: Jean Paul Sartre's ..
Sartre, Jean-Paul (1963) Search for a Method. Translated from the French withan Introduction by Hazel E. Barnes. NY: Vintage Books (A Division of RandomHouse). Vintage Book edition is 1968.
Next Sartre's a notions of the spontaneous and reflective phases of consciousness will be my focus Upon discussing the reflective phase I will go into depth about the fundamental project, and why it is pursued, and I will give examples from No Exit.
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Sartre's existentialism drew its immediate inspiration ..
Sartre presupposes this radical freedom as a fact but fails to address what is necessary to possess the type of freedom which would allow man to define himself.
Sartre essay - No more fails with our high class writing services
What are they saying about Existentialism and its followers?
Setting Up His Argument
What are the two types of existentialists that Sartre mentions?
What is the difference between these two types?
Discuss the point of the first type.
What does this mean?
Discuss the point of the second type.
What does this mean?
Who is Jean-Paul Sartre?
Fun Fact: In October of 1964, Sartre was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature and he turned it down, becoming teh first Nobel Laureate to do so.
No Exit by Jean-Paul Sartre Essay Sample - Bla Bla Writing
"Subjectivity is indeed our point of departure"
- What does he mean by that?
- What is the Absolute Truth to Sartre?
-What kind of theories does Sartre not like?
Sartre's Freedom Argument
"We want freedom for freedom's sake and in every particular circumstance."
-What is the next step in this argument?
-How does this relate to his previous arguments?
Existence precedes Essence
"It states that if God does not exist, there is at least one being in whom existence precedes essence, a being who exists before he can be defined as a concept, and that being is man, or as Heidegger says, human reality"
-What does this mean for man?
-What are the three things that Sartre uses to expand on this and further his argument against the charges?
A Little Later...
In 1939, Sartre was drafted in the French Army
He was captured by German troops in 1940 and spent 9 months as a prisoner of war.
No Exit by Jean-Paul Sartre essay editing for ..
As Sartre and Merleau-Ponty would later do, Heidegger pursued theseissues with the somewhat unlikely resources of Edmund Husserl'sphenomenological method. And while not all existential philosopherswere influenced by phenomenology (for instance Jaspers and Marcel), thephilosophical legacy of existentialism is largely tied to the form ittook as an existential version of phenomenology. Husserl's efforts inthe first decades of the twentieth century had been directed towardestablishing a descriptive science of consciousness, by which heunderstood not the object of the natural science of psychology but the“transcendental” field of intentionality, i.e., that whereby ourexperience is meaningful, an experience of somethingas something. The existentialists welcomed Husserl's doctrineof intentionality as a refutation of the Cartesian view according towhich consciousness relates immediately only to its ownrepresentations, ideas, sensations. According to Husserl, consciousnessis our direct openness to the world, one that is governed categorially(normatively) rather than causally; that is, intentionality is not aproperty of the individual mind but the categorial framework in whichmind and world become intelligible.
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