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Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; …
“humans do have the potential for destruction. However, the topic is “importance”, not benevolence. I believe that something which is capable of immense destruction is more important than something which is not.” ARE YOU FKCING KIDDING ME?!!! WHAT IS FUCKING WRONG WITH YOU, PSYCHO?!!!, you are nothing but a criminal, so animal abuse then is GOOD?! Experiments on animals too?, having fun killing animals or ignoring it totally? i should let an inocent animal die because he dont have the capacity of being a parasitic infection like humanity? (staring at Tom not surprised) Its typical, a PARASITE protecting his own kind, thats why he SUPPORTS the massacre of REAL innocent beings (not like those damn civilians or women or children, any idiot can defend them, society does XD) and the murder of the planet? it doesnt matter?
Like humans, many species are social animals who, in addition tonavigating a physical world, must also navigate a social world. In the1970s it was suggested that in order to succeed in a competitivesocial world, individuals would benefit from having some understandingof the mind of others (Humphrey 1976, 1978), with Alison Jollysuggesting that knowing other minds helps members of big social groupscooperate (Jolly 1966). Humphrey wrote, “...I venture to suggestthat if a rat’s knowledge of the behavior of other rats were to belimited to everything which behaviorists have discovered about rats todate, the rat would show so little understanding of its fellows thatit would bungle disastrously every social interaction it engaged in;the prospects for a man similarly constrained would be still moredismal” (Humphrey 1978, 60). The idea here is that knowledge ofother minds can offer added value over knowing others’ behavioralpatterns.
Why Do Humans Talk to Animals If They Can't …
Though we might agree that animals have minds, worries arise when westart to describe what those minds look like. When researchersattribute mental content to other species, they open themselves to thecharge of anthropomorphism. The term “anthropomorphism”has a number of different connotations, but most generally refers tothe act of attributing human traits to other animals. Sometimes theterm is used to refer only to psychological traits, and sometimes itis used to refer to traits that are claimed to be uniquely human (inwhich case anthropomorphism is an error by definition). In recentyears, there have been a number of theoretical discussions about thecharge of anthropomorphism itself (including the essays in Daston& Mitman 2005; Mitchell . 1997; and work by Andrews2009, Andrews & Huss 2014; Asquith 1997; Buckner 2013; Crist 1999;Fisher 1990, 1991; Keeley 2004; Kennedy 1992; Meketa 2014; Rivas &Burghardt 2002; Shettleworth 2010b; Sober 2012; Wynne 2004, 2007), andworries about the use of folk psychology in animal cognition researchmore specifically (Penn 2011; Andrews forthcoming).
The idea that if we can’t say what animals think, then animalsdon’t have beliefs has been challenged by appealing to nonconceptualcontent. Jacob Beck (2013) suggests that we cannot say what an animalthinks because animals think in a nonlinguistic format. Just as apainting can have content without having content that is expressiblein language, animals may have content that is not expressible inlanguage. Furthermore, humans may share some of this content withanimals, and so we could share beliefs with an animal if we think inthe same nonlinguistic format about the same thing. The nonlinguisticformat may be an analog one, rather than in a digital format such aslanguage. Analogue formats do not permit analysis in terms of howmeaningful parts fit together to make a meaningful whole, the waylanguage does. Instead, analogue formats have their meaningholistically, but like a photograph analog representations come indegrees of focus. Examples of analog content include pictures, images,and maps, and since we cannot translate from such representations to asentence (Beck asks us to consider how to translate the Mona Lisa intoEnglish!), we won’t be able to translate animal representations intolanguage. But animals can still have representations, just as the MonaLisa still exists despite the fact that it is untranslatable. Beckprovides an example of nonconceptual content shared by humans andanimals in the case of analogue magnitude states, which arerepresentations of approximate number (Beck 2012). Humans and otherspecies can make judgments about greater or lesser arrays of objectsso long as the ratio is large enough. Beck argues that theseapproximate number representations cannot be accurately expressed insentences, and concludes that this offers evidence in favor ofnon-conceptual content for animals and humans alike. Analoguemagnitudes are examples of perceptual representational states, whichdo not have the same logical properties as sentential representationalstates.
Animals news, articles and information:
has been a prominent hypothesis that posited that behaviorally modern humans suddenly appeared. It was once considered an abrupt event that began about 50-40 kya, but as new archeological finds are amassed, as well as recent advances in genetic research and other areas, the story is familiar. Although on the geological timescale the event was abrupt, radical, and unprecedented in life’s history on Earth, the “ramping” period seems to have lasted longer than initially thought. A likelier story is that in East Africa, which conforms to a . inherited culture and tools from their ancestors and continued along the path of inventing more complex technologies and techniques, exploiting new biomes, and reaching new levels of cognition. There does not seem to be any or development that needs to invoke divine or extraterrestrial intervention to explain the appearance and rise of . Some migrated past their African homeland during the of 130 kya to 114 kya and brought along their technology. Although they may have disappeared and perhaps became Neanderthal prey, vestiges of their fate are probably yet to be discovered. They may have contributed to the biological and technological wealth of Eurasian humans and may have begun to drive vulnerable species to extinction with their new tools and techniques. However, Africa remained the crucible of primate biological and technological innovation, as it almost always had to that time. By 70-60 kya, isolated African humans reached a level of sophistication called behavioral modernity. Art was in evidence, needles made clothes and other sophisticated possessions, and they mastered language, which was probably a unique trait among land animals. They made tools of a sophistication far advanced over other humans, which probably included projectile weapons that radically changed the terms of engagement with prey animals, predators, and other humans.
When chimpanzees eat meat, they put large, tough leaves in their mouths. That helps them overachieve as meat eaters, as their teeth and jaws are poorly adapted for chewing meat. Mountain gorillas eat no meat at all. In the wild, great apes spend about half of their day chewing. Chimpanzees are the most carnivorous great ape, and although meat is the greatest treasure in chimpanzee societies, they often stop eating meat after chewing it for an hour or two and revert to fruit and other softer foods if they can get it. Chimpanzees when their staple, fruit, is scarce. Chimps have been seen killing monkeys, eating their organs, and then abandoning the carcasses to find more monkeys to kill. Organ meats and intestines are far easier to chew, and a poor meat chewer like a chimpanzee prefers soft meats. Just as chimpanzees prefer soft meats, predators will eat soft organs first and leave the tougher muscle for later, if they eat it at all. It depends on how plentiful the available flesh is, but the pattern across all predator groups is clear: eat the best, first, and leave the lesser quality foods to the end or let scavengers have them. It will always be a cost/benefit decision. All things being equal, the less time and energy needed to eat something, the sooner it will be eaten. If extra time and effort is needed to procure food, then the nutritional reward (primarily in energy) has to be exceptional to justify it. Evolutionary pressures have made animals into excellent accountants. The human sweet tooth is a relic of humanity’s fruit-eating ape heritage, and the desire for fatty foods reflects an adaptation to prefer that energy-richest of foods. Fat (made of hydrocarbons) is the ultimate energy windfall of all foods.
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Humans are the only animals who crave oblivion through suicide
In South America, its animals continued to evolve in isolation, and some huge ones appeared. In the Miocene, the flew in South American skies; it looked like a giant condor, had a seven-meter wingspan, and weighed 70 kilograms. The lived in South America in the late Miocene and early Pliocene. first appeared, as well as a , and some inhabited the large herbivore guild and looked like guild members on other continents, for another instance of convergent evolution. In Australia, the Miocene fossil record is thin, but recent findings demonstrate that all Miocene mammals were marsupials, except for bats. Kangaroos diversified into different niches; some were rat-sized and others became carnivorous. foraged in the Miocene, and marsupial lions first appeared in the Oligocene, kept growing over the epochs, and when humans arrived about 50 kya, they were . , as they still did in South America, although just how carnivorous some may have been is debated.
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Chimpanzees are the most tool-using non-human great ape, and . One problem with studying today’s animals and applying those findings to their ancestors is that their line has evolved too. The did not look like today’s chimpanzees, and probably did not act quite like them. However, chimpanzees and gorillas adapted to environments that have not remarkably changed for the past 8-10 million years, and it is unlikely that they have dramatically changed over that time. Orangutans are similar. Scientists have argued that since there is little evidence of morphological change in those great apes in the intervening years since they split from the human line, particularly in their cranial capacity, that they probably act similarly today and have similar capacities to their distant ancestors. Today’s chimps have . They make and use tools, and an . All great apes have and some even .
Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp
So far in this essay, mammals have received scant attention, but the mammals’ development before the Cenozoic is important for understanding their rise to dominance. The , called , first , about 260 mya, and they had key mammalian characteristics. Their jaws and teeth were markedly different from those of other reptiles; their teeth were specialized for more thorough chewing, which extracts more energy from food, and that was likely a key aspect of success more than 100 million years later. Cynodonts also developed a secondary palate so that they could chew and breathe at the same time, which was more energy efficient. Cynodonts eventually ceased the reptilian practice of continually growing and shedding teeth, and their specialized and precisely fitted teeth rarely changed. Mammals replace their teeth a . Along with tooth changes, jawbones changed roles. Fewer and stronger bones anchored the jaw, which allowed for stronger jaw musculature and led to the mammalian (clench your teeth and you can feel your masseter muscle). Bones previously anchoring the jaw were no longer needed and . The jaw’s rearrangement led to the most auspicious proto-mammalian development: . Mammals had relatively large brains from the very beginning and it was probably initially . Mammals are the only animals with a , which eventually led to human intelligence. As dinosaurian dominance drove mammals to the margins, where they lived underground and emerged to feed at night, mammals needed improved senses to survive, and auditory and olfactory senses heightened, as did the mammalian sense of touch. Increased processing of stimuli required a larger brain, and . In humans, only livers use more energy than brains. Cynodonts also had , which suggest that they were warm-blooded. Soon after the Permian extinction, a cynodont appeared that may have ; it was another respiratory innovation that served it well in those low-oxygen times, functioning like pump gills in aquatic environments.
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