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There were countless motivations that spurred the European powers to carve Africa, like economical, political, and socio–cultural, and there were countless attitudes towards this expansion into Africa, some of approval and some of condemnation.
Despite these gains, between 1500 and 1800, Europe had little influence on the lives of the peoples of China, India or Africa.” (Esler, page.632) Then the Europeans industrialized and believe western cultures were superior to all other....
The European Colonization of Africa - Term Paper
Portugal was the last European colonial power to maintain its rule on the continent: in Guinea-Bissau and the Cape Verde islands in the west, Angola in central Africa, and Mozambique in eastern Africa. Fighting guerrilla wars and supported by left-leaning African regimes, as well as Cuba, China, and the U.S.S.R., the PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde) liberated large areas of Guinea-Bissau in the 1970s. Here, members of the UN Special Committee of 24 on Decolonization visited these areas in 1972.
Frantz Fanon (1925–1961), a psychiatrist, Pan-Africanist, writer, and revolutionary, was born in Martinique. In 1952 he published Black Skin, White Masks, which exposed the negative effects of colonization on the mental state of subjugated peoples. As a psychiatrist in Algeria, he joined the FLN (National Liberation Front), which waged a war of independence against France. In 1961, Fanon published The Wretched of the Earth, a book on decolonization that has remained a classic and influenced revolutionaries the world over, including Malcolm X, the Black Panthers, Che Guevara, and the South African Steve Biko, founder of the Black Consciousness movement. Fanon died in Maryland, where he had sought treatment for leukemia, and was buried in Algeria.
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When decolonization began, there were reasons for optimism. The year 1960 was heralded throughout Africa and the West as "the Year of Africa" for the inspiring change that swept the continent. During that year, the Sharpeville massacre in South Africa shook the world to awaken to the horrors of white minority rule as South African police fired into a crowd of peaceful black protesters, killing sixty-nine in full view of photographers and reporters. Also in 1960, seventeen African territories gained independence from the strong arm of European colonial rule. These seventeen nations joined the United Nation's General Assembly and gave greater voice to the non-Western world.
From the 18th century on, expanding European imperialism across the globe began to pose acute challenges to states and societies throughout Asia and Africa. These challenges held enormous repercussions for indigenous women of all social classes, religions, and ethno-racial backgrounds. Until the late 18th century, the four states of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria were provinces of the Ottoman Empire; only Morocco was an independent kingdom. European political and cultural influence in North Africa was minimal. This changed dramatically after Napoleons 1798 expedition to Egypt, and, above all, with Frances invasion of Algeria in 1830. This essay and the supporting documents concentrate upon the three North African statesAlgeria, Tunisia, and Moroccothat were part of the French Empire from 1830 until 1956 and 1962.
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European Colonization of Africa Persuasive Essay Essay …
However, it was a challenge for African nations to forge international links beyond words on paper: few national networks of administration, communication, or transportation within their borders operated consistently and effectively. In addition, the senior administrators who ran the colonies were removed with European rule, to be replaced by Africans with far less experience. Moreover, the political system that African leaders inherited was structured to benefit the evolving ruling classes with little regard for the needs of the people. There were few real efforts beyond the political speeches of Kwame Nkrumah—Ghana's first president, in power from 1957 to 1966—and the words of the founding charter of the Organization of African Unity to look beyond these accepted borders toward pan-Africanist or even regional confederations.
Colonization in Africa Essay - Paper Topics
North African responses to foreign control varied immensely. Militant anti-colonial resistance represented only one of several collective solutions to the disruptions of military occupation and dispossession. All of the European empires in the Middle East and North Africa pursued virtually identical policies, choosing consciously to collaborate generally with the most retrograde indigenous political or social groups to divide and rule, and block modernityand eventually, democracy. The legacy of these policies is still very much in evidence today. Movements for womens emancipation arose in those North African or Middle Eastern countries that were the least disrupted by imperialism and violence. In other words, the more that male honor and masculinity were defined by waging warfare and by a cult of violence and militarism, the more precarious womens rights were and would remainthe classic example of this being present-day Algeria.
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Although Western European powers granted aid to African nations, they also coerced governments to support their agendas and instigated and aided coups against democratically elected governments. They also fomented civil unrest to ensure that governments friendly to their Cold War agenda remained in power and those that were not were removed by political machinations or assassination. In the Congo, for example, Joseph Mobutu took a strong anti-communist position and was subsequently rewarded by Western powers. It mattered little that in 1960 he helped orchestrate the coup that removed and ultimately brought about the murder of Patrice Lumumba, was among the most anti-democratic leaders on the continent, and siphoned Western aid and revenue from the nation's natural resources into personal accounts. Mobutu's rise to power and economic and political damage to Congo in the process—with the help of his Western allies—demonstrates that the politics of the Cold War, more than anything else, defined the successes and failures of African decolonization.
European colonization of africa essay
Towards the end of the 19th century, around 1870s and 1900, Africa was faced with imperial aggression, military invasions, diplomatic pressure and finally, a conquest by the European nations (Iweriebor 2013). Although many of the African communities put up some form of resistance, it was not enough against the sophisticated weapons and forces of the European nations. In the early twentieth century, almost all of African countries were under European colonization. The cause of the colonization was not understood by the natives. Although several factors led to the colonization and partitioning of Africa, two main factors that stood out, economic interests and political and power issues (Iweriebor 2013).
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