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In doing so he began what today is called the Turing Machine.

All were published by North-Holland (Amsterdam; London). The overall editorof the series was P. N. Furbank, Alan Turing's literary executor until his death in June 2014.

Copeland's editorial comments are controversial. See  in a special edition of the

His boyhood scientific interests were a trial to his mother whose perpetual terror was that he would not be acceptable to the English Public School. At twelve he expressed his conscious fascination with using 'the thing that is commonest in nature and with the least waste of energy,' presentiment of a life seeking freshly minted answers to fundamental questions. Despite this, he was successfully entered for Sherborne School. The headmaster soon reported: "If he is to be solely a Scientific Specialist, he is wasting his time at a Public School." The assessment of his establishment was almost correct.

The Turing Machine is a simple kind of computer.

Alan Turing was born on June 23, 1912 to a wealthy middle class family.

Church accepted that Turing's definition gave a compelling, intuitivereason for why Church's thesis was true. The recent exposition byDavis (2000) emphasises that Gödel also was convinced by Turing'sargument that an absolute concept had been identified (Gödel1946). The situation has not changed since 1937. (For furthercomment, see the article on the The recent selection of Turing's papers edited by Copeland (2004),and the review of Hodges (2006), continue this discussion.)

In 1938 Turing was offered a temporary post at Princeton by von Neumann but instead returned to Cambridge. He had no University lectureship; in the year 1938-9 he lived on his King's College fellowship, as logician and number theorist. Unusually for a mathematician, he joined in Wittgenstein's classes on the philosophy of mathematics; unusually again, he engineered gear-wheel parts for a special machine to calculate the Riemann Zeta-function.

...at today is known as the Turing Test.

In 1950, Alan Turing of Britain publishes, Computer Machinery and Intelligence.

But it is an enigma to which the twenty-first century seemsincreasingly drawn. The year of his centenary, 2012, witnessednumerous conferences, publications, and cultural events in hishonor. Some reasons for this explosion of interest are obvious. One isthat the question of the power and limitations of computation nowarises in virtually every sphere of human activity. Another is thatissues of sexual orientation have taken on a new importance in moderndemocracies. More subtly, the interdisciplinary breadth of Turing'swork is now better appreciated. A landmark of the centenary period wasthe publication of Alan Turing, his work and impact(eds. Cooper and van Leeuwen, 2013), which made available almost allaspects of Turing's scientific oeuvre, with a wealth of moderncommentary. In this new climate, fresh attention has been paid toTuring's lesser-known work, and new light shed upon hisachievements. He has emerged from obscurity to become one of the mostintensely studied figures in modern science.

Alan Turing did not fit easily with any of the intellectual movementsof his time, aesthetic, technocratic or marxist. In the 1950s,commentators struggled to find discreet words to categorise him: as‘a scientific Shelley,’ as possessing great ‘moralintegrity’. Until the 1970s, the reality of his life wasunmentionable. He is still hard to place within twentieth-centurythought. He exalted the science that according to existentialists hadrobbed life of meaning. The most original figure, the most insistenton personal freedom, he held originality and will to be susceptible tomechanisation. The mind of Alan Turing continues to be anenigma.

computing machinery and intelligence alan turing
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alan turing personality biography

By 1942 Alan Turing was the genius loci at Bletchley Park, famous as 'Prof', shabby, nail-bitten, tie-less, sometimes halting in speech and awkward of manner, the source of many hilarious anecdotes about bicycles, gas masks, and the Home Guard; the foe of charlatans and status-seekers, relentless in long shift work with his colleagues, mostly of student age. To one of these, Joan Clarke, he proposed marriage, and was gladly accepted. But then he retracted, telling her of his homosexuality.

enigma code breaker alan turing

Besides illustrating the always razor-edge state of the war of wits, this crisis brought about a new ingredient in Alan Turing's experience: electronic technology made its first appearance at Bletchley Park as telephone engineers were pressed into an effort to gain ever higher speeds of mechanical working. As it turned out, however, the electronic engineers found themselves called upon to mechanize the breaking of the 'Fish' material: messages enciphered on the quite different system used for Hitler's strategic communications. Here again Turing's statistical ideas underlay the methods employed, though it was M. H. A. Newman who played the organising role. The conjunction of Turing's thoughts with the practicality of large-scale electronic machinery, arising from this technical U-boat Enigma change, came to have momentous consequences.

alan turing personality character

Turing crossed the Atlantic in November 1942, for highest-level liaison not only on the desperate U-boat Enigma crisis, but on the electronic encipherment of speech signals between Roosevelt and Churchill. Before his return in March 1943, logical weaknesses in the changed U-boat system had been brilliantly detected, and U-boat Enigma decryption was effectively restored for the rest of the war. With the battle of the Atlantic regained for the Allies, crisis resolved, chess champion C. H. O'D. Alexander, hitherto Turing's deputy, took charge of Hut 8.

alan turing computing machinery intelligence summary

From late 1940 onwards, the Turing-Welchman Bombe made reading of Luftwaffe signals routine. In contrast, the more complex Enigma methods used in German Naval communications were generally regarded as unbreakable. Happy to work alone on a problem that defeated others, Turing cracked the system at the end of 1939, but it required the capture of further material by the Navy, and the development of sophisticated statistical processes, before regular decryption could begin in mid-1941. Turing's section 'Hut 8', which deciphered Naval and in particular U-boat messages, then became a key unit at Bletchley Park. By the end of 1941, as the United States entered the war, the battle of the Atlantic was moving towards Allied advantage. On 1 February 1942, the Atlantic U-boat Enigma machine was given an extra complication and this advantage was suddenly wiped out: nothing could be decoded and catastrophe loomed.

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