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David Hume has an answer to these questions.
Hume explains his regularity theory in two ways: (1) “we may define a cause to be an object, followed by another, and where all the objects similar to the first are followed by objects similar to the second” (2) “if the first object had not been, the second never had existed.” Hume defines causation in terms of natural necessity and explains natural...
However, some philosophers such as John Locke and Charles Beitz argue that tacit consent can ground obligation to obey the state’s law while others such as Hanna Pitkin and David Hume counter this argument with the opinion that tacit consent is not sufficient to ground political obligation....
I will start this essay with a basic summary of Hume’s argument.
As we saw, the moral sentiments are produced by sympathy with thoseaffected by a trait or action. Such sympathetically-acquired feelingsare distinct from our self-interested responses, and an individual ofdiscernment learns to distinguish her moral sentiments (which aretriggered by contemplating another's character trait “ingeneral”) from the pleasure or uneasiness she may feel whenresponding to a trait with reference to her “particularinterest,” for example when another's strength of character makeshim a formidable opponent (T 220.127.116.11).
The same fashion a few years ago prevailed in GENOA, which still has place in ENGLAND and HOLLAND, of using services of CHINA-ware instead of plate; but the senate, foreseeing the consequence, prohibited the use of that brittle commodity beyond a certain extent; while the use of silver-plate was left unlimited. And I suppose, in their late distresses, they felt the good effect of this ordinance. Our tax on plate is, perhaps, in this view, somewhat impolitic.
Free Hume papers, essays, and research papers
See John B. Stewart, The Moral and Political Philosophy of David Hume (New York: Columbia University Press, 1963); F. A. Hayek, “The Legal and Political Philosophy of David Hume,” in V. C. Chappell, ed., Hume: A Collection of Critical Essays (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966), pp. 335–60; Duncan Forbes, Hume’s Philosophical Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975); David Miller, Philosophy and Ideology in Hume’s Political Thought (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981); and Donald W. Livingston, Hume’s Philosophy of Common Life (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).
See, for example, Essential Works of David Hume, ed. Ralph Cohen (New York: Bantam Books, 1965); Of the Standard of Taste, And Other Essays, ed. John W. Lenz (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965); Writings on Economics, ed. Eugene Rotwein (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1955); Political Essays, ed. Charles W. Hendel (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1953); Theory of Politics, ed. Frederick M. Watkins (Edinburgh: Nelson, 1951); and Hume’s Moral and Political Philosophy, ed. Henry D. Aiken (New York: Hafner, 1948).
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David Hume - Essays, papers, reports
Building on a "recent meeting" with Hume in a pub on Princes Street in Edinburgh, I develop the suggestion that both Kant and Moore were loyal to traditional notions of an intuited, non-prudential basis for ethical injunctions....
Essays, Moral and Political (1741-42, 1777 ..
Moore respecting what they saw as the appropriate foundation for moral systems seems to have been at work in the reactions of both to the earlier criticisms of David Hume.
Essays by David Hume — Reviews, Discussion, …
Hume's position in ethics, which is based on hisempiricist , is best known for asserting four theses: (1) Reason alonecannot be a motive to the will, but rather is the “slave of the passions” (see ) (2) Moral distinctions are not derived from reason (see ). (3) Moral distinctions are derived from the moral sentiments: feelings ofapproval (esteem, praise) and disapproval (blame) felt by spectatorswho contemplate a character trait or action (see ). (4) While some virtues and vices are natural (see ), others, including justice, are artificial (see ). There is heated debate about what Hume intends by each of thesetheses and how he argues for them. He articulates and defends them within the broader context of his metaethics and his ethic of virtue andvice.
Hume essays - Writing an Academic Term Paper Is a Trifle!
Hume's main ethical writings are Book 3 of his Treatise of HumanNature, “Of Morals” (which builds on Book 2, “Ofthe Passions”), his Enquiry concerning the Principles ofMorals, and some of his Essays. In part the moralEnquiry simply recasts central ideas from the moral part ofthe Treatise in a more accessible style; but there areimportant differences. The ethical positions and arguments of theTreatise are set out below, noting where the moralEnquiry agrees; differences between the Enquiry andthe Treatise are discussed afterwards.
Philosophy Essays: Hume Vs. Kant: The Nature of Morality
One is a question of moral epistemology: how do human beings becomeaware of, or acquire knowledge or belief about, moral good and evil,right and wrong, duty and obligation? Ethical theorists andtheologians of the day held, variously, that moral good and evil arediscovered: (a) by reason in some of its uses (Hobbes, Locke, Clarke),(b) by divine revelation (Filmer), (c) by conscience or reflection onone's (other) impulses (Butler), or (d) by a moral sense: an emotionalresponsiveness manifesting itself in approval or disapproval(Shaftesbury, Hutcheson). Hume sides with the moral sense theorists:we gain awareness of moral good and evil by experiencing the pleasureof approval and the uneasiness of disapproval when we contemplate acharacter trait or action from an imaginatively sensitive and unbiasedpoint of view. Hume maintains against the rationalists that, althoughreason is needed to discover the facts of any concrete situation andthe general social impact of a trait of character or a practice overtime, reason alone is insufficient to yield a judgment that somethingis virtuous or vicious. In the last analysis, the facts as known musttrigger a response by sentiment or “taste.”
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