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The Poetics of Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) is a much-disdained book
Virtue ethicists have eschewed any attempt to ground virtue ethics inan external foundation while continuing to maintain that their claimscan be validated. Some follow a form of Rawls’s coherentist approach(Slote 2001; Swanton 2003); neo-Aristotelians a form of ethicalnaturalism.
Here is a prompt for the essay on Aristotle’s ethics–essentially all I am looking for is just a detailed explanation of his ethics and this (I would propose) will demand a bit of research on your part. Please remember to cite any sources you use, and cite them properly. As with the other topics, if there is some particular issue you would rather write on that is directly related to the topic feel free to do so. I only ask that you discuss it with me first (and bring a clearly stated prompt with you when you do).
About Aristotle 's Ethics - CliffsNotes Study Guides
Based on the work by Aristotle, friendship is one of the highly imperative virtues for an individual to possess as they attempt to attain happiness. He states there are different kinds of friends namely, the friendship of utility, virtue and friendship of pleasure. However, according to the philosopher, the most esteemed and high friendship is that of virtues. He views friendship as the important part of life and believes through friendship, one is able to achieve happiness, the ultimate purpose of human beings (achievement of happiness). In this work titled “nicomachean ethics”, he states that honest relationship is among the highly significant things an individual can attain. He deems friendship as an important aspect of life as it leads to total happiness and pleasure. Further, he argues friendship is glorious and it cannot be compared with other factors like justice and honor.
This is one of the reasons why Aristotle says that particular excellences of character involve observing a mean relative to us. It is also why he says that the mean relative to us cannot be determined with arithmetic precision: where we should aim to hit the mean will vary a great deal depending on the kinds and directions of crosswinds, headwinds and tailwinds; their strength; whether they are constant or intermittent; whether or not there are gusts; whether there are variations in the terrain which might produce unusual pockets of turbulence. Hitting a target in conditions like these is not a matter of fixing one's sight unwaveringly on one particular point (the geometrical center of the bulls-eye); it involves close attention to, and adjustment for, a variety of factors which would otherwise make us miss the mark. Hitting the mark is a matter of active, engaged participation in a complex situation. How, and how much, and when, and in what ways we should adjust is not something that can be said prior to close attention to the circumstances of the situation. There is no procedure we can go through which will enable us to fix in advance the location of the mean. (It is worth noting that the verb stochazesthai, literally "to take aim," e.g. at a target, is used in the NE and some contemporary works of a kind of skilled guesswork, an experimental use of reason which is sensitive to the details of particular situations (see, e.g., 1106b15; 1109a30; 1126b29; 1127a6-8; 1128a6; 1129b15; 1141b13-16; cf. Politics 1266b28; 1324b7; Rhetoric 1395b10; cf. Plato, Gorgias 465A2; Philebus 55E-56A; Laws 635A2, 962D1-5; cf. On Ancient Medicine, chapter 9). Our word "stochastic" has some of these connotations, though unlike its Greek ancestor it suggests randomness.)
Nicomachean Ethics Essay Example for Free
Majority of people found the proposal by Aristotle regarding morality to be far more convincing than others. It is a given fact individuals possess good virtue and morals depending on their emotions and how they think. When an individual sets out to do something, they can either do it deficiently or excessively. For instance, the important rationale for issue of money is based on virtue of being generous. While giving money, one might give less or more depending on their emotions.
But although all standard versions of virtue ethics insist on thatconceptual link between virtue and eudaimonia,further links are matters of dispute and generate differentversions. For Aristotle, virtue is necessary but notsufficient—what is also needed are external goods which are amatter of luck. For Plato and the Stoics, virtue is both necessary and sufficient for eudaimonia (Annas 1993).
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Virtue in Aristotle's Ethics - Study Guides & Essay Editing
Although modern virtue ethics does not have to take a “neo-Aristotelian” or eudaimonist form (see section 2), almost any modern version still shows that its roots are in ancient Greek philosophy by the employment of threeconcepts derived from it. These are arête (excellence orvirtue), phronesis (practical or moral wisdom) andeudaimonia (usually translated as happiness or flourishing). (See Annas 2011 for a short, clear, and authoritative account of all three.)We discuss the first two in the remainder of this section. Eudaimonia is discussed in connection with eudaimonist versions of virtue ethics in the next.
Aristotle: Ethics and the Virtues Essay - 2253 Words | …
Ethics refers to moral values portrayed by people in the society or an individual. The morality of an individual is measured through use of moral ethics. The society, normally expects everyone to uphold certain moral values or act in ways that show others they are morally upright. Old ethic scholars like Aristotle, Plato, Mill, Hum and Kant had different views regarding morality. The argument made by Mill was based on the platform of happiness and utility law. He said the actions of an individual are deemed as good and moral if they lead to happiness and they become immoral if they deprive an individual of happiness in life. Kant believed morality was dependent on an individual’s good will and behavior. He stated good will is the only best qualified actions and the rest good characteristics like courage, happiness, education and the rest do not count as part of morality. On the other hand, Aristotle believed the best judgment for morality could be judged on the grounds of virtue.
Essay Aristotle and Ethical Egoism - 821 Words | Cram
In the West, virtue ethics’ founding fathers are Plato and Aristotle, and in the East it can be traced back to Mencius and Confucius. It persisted as the dominant approach in Western moral philosophy until at least the Enlightenment, suffered a momentary eclipse during the nineteenth century, but re-emerged in Anglo-American philosophy in the late 1950s. It was heralded by Anscombe’s famous article “Modern Moral Philosophy” (Anscombe 1958) which crystallized an increasing dissatisfaction with the forms of deontology and utilitarianism then prevailing. Neither of them, at that time, paid attention to a number of topics that had always figured in the virtue ethics tradition—virtues and vices, motives and moral character, moral education, moral wisdom or discernment, friendship and family relationships, a deep concept of happiness, the role of the emotions in our moral life and the fundamentally important questions of what sorts of persons we should be and how we should live.
FREE Aristotle on Nicomachean and Virtue Ethics Essay
Aristotle argues in the paragraphs following this passage that the person whose perception and discernment is most acute is the practically wise person. (This is why, in the account of excellence or virtue quoted above [1106b36-1107a2], it is in observance of a mean relative to us, determined by reason, as the practically wise person would determine it, that excellence consists.) The practically wise person has a knack for hitting the mean, hits it consistently in a wide variety of circumstances. She is the balanced person, the person who is ethically healthy and whose character and emotions and actions therefore exhibit "proper balance or proportion." Aristotle is not suggesting that we blindly defer to this person's judgments and opinions about where the mean lies. He does suggest, however, that the reactions, opinions and considered judgments of the practically wise person are important standards to which we may find it useful to appeal in deliberation. Still, in the situations we face the mark we are interested in hitting is a mean that is relative to us, not to the person of practical wisdom. Such a person may be good at hitting such a mark, but she cannot do it for us. She may be able to advise us; but it is up to us to hit the mark (1105b5-18).
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