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"Darwinism and Divinity: Essays on Evolution ..
In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, authors from newlyemerging scientific disciplines, such as anthropology, sociology, andpsychology, examined the purported naturalistic roots of religiousbelief. They did so with a broad brush, trying to explain what unifiesdiverse religious beliefs across cultures, rather than accounting forcultural variations. In anthropology, the idea that all culturesevolve and progress along the same lines (cultural evolutionism) waswidespread. Cultures with differing religious views were explained asbeing in an early stage of development. For example, Tylor (1871)regarded animism, the belief that spirits animate the world, as theearliest form of religious belief. Comte (1841) proposed that allsocieties, in their attempts to make sense of the world, go throughthe same stages of development: the theological (religious) stage isthe earliest phase, where religious explanations predominate, followedby the metaphysical stage (a non-intervening God), and culminating inthe positive or scientific stage, marked by scientific explanationsand empirical observations.
Birch, Charles and John B. Cobb, Jr. The Liberation ofLife (Cambridge University Press, 1984).
Gilkey, Langdon. Nature, Reality and the Sacred: TheNexus of Science and Religion (Fortress Press, 1993).
John F. Haught. God After Darwin: A Theology of Evolution(Westview Press: Boulder, CO, 2000).
Hefner, Philip. The Human Factor: Evolution, Culture,and Religion (Fortress Press, 1993).
Peacocke, Arthur. Theology for a Scientific Age (Fortress Press, 1993).
Schmitz-Moormann, Karl and James F. Salmon. Theology ofCreation in an Evolutionary World
(Pilgrim Press, 1997).
Religion,” in Darwinism and Divinity: Essays on Evolution and ..
From the 1920s onward, the scientific study of religion became lessconcerned with grand unifying narratives, and focused more onparticular religious traditions and beliefs. Anthropologists, such asEdward Evans-Pritchard (1937/1965) and Bronislaw Malinowski(1925/1992) no longer relied exclusively on second-hand reports(usually of poor quality and from distorted sources), but engaged inserious fieldwork. Their ethnographies indicated that culturalevolutionism was mistaken and that religious beliefs were more diversethan was previously assumed. They argued that religious beliefs werenot the result of ignorance of naturalistic mechanisms; for instance,Evans-Pritchard noted that the Azande were well aware that housescould collapse because termites ate away at their foundations, butthey still appealed to witchcraft to explain why a particular househad collapsed. More recently, Cristine Legare et al. (2012) found thatpeople in various cultures straightforwardly combine supernatural andnatural explanations, for instance, South Africans are aware AIDS iscaused by a virus, but some also believe that the viral infection isultimately caused by a witch.
Many Christians found in Lamarckian evolution the9piritual dimension’ by which they could reinterpret or transform their Darwinist theories.3 The result was that church acceptance of evolution often amounted to little more than the adoption of a pre-Darwinian, Hegelian belief in spirit progressively dominating matter, and the assimilation of Darwin by late Victorian theologians as often as not turns out to have been the assimilation of Spencer instead.4
Darwinism and divinity essays on evolution and religious bel
Examining the path Charles Darwin, had followed in his attempt to better understand the evolutionary path of man, noted biologist explains Darwinian theory in respects to not only evolution but also in respect to the belief that man is somehow a creature made of a higher divinity than all else.
Catholic theology’s traditional understanding of the spiritual nature of the human person begins with the idea of a rational soul and human mind that is made manifest in free will—the spiritual experience of the act of consciousness and cause of all human arts. The rationale for this religion-based idea of personhood is key to understanding ethical dilemmas posed by modern research that applies a more empirical methodology in its interpretations about the cause of human consciousness. Applications of these beliefs about the body/soul composite to the theory of evolution and to discoveries in neuroscience, paleoanthropology, as well as to recent animal intelligence studies, can be interpreted from this religious and philosophical perspective, which argues for the human soul as the unifying cause of the person’s unique abilities. Free will and consciousness are at the nexus of the mutual influence of body and soul upon one another in the traditional Catholic view, that argues for a spiritual dimension to personality that is on a par with the physical metabolic processes at play. Therapies that affect consciousness are ethically problematic, because of their implications for free will and human dignity. Studies of resilience, as an example, argue for the greater, albeit limited, role of the soul’s conscious choices in healing as opposed to metabolic or physical changes to the brain alone.
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Acceptance of evolution by religious groups - Wikipedia
Larson, Edward J. Summer for the Gods: The ScopesTrial and Americas Continuing Debate over Science andReligion (Basic Books, 1997).
Livingston, David N. Darwins ForgottenDefenders: The Encounter Between Evangelical Theology andEvolutionary Thought (Scottish Academic Press, 1987).
Numbers, Ronald. The Creationists (University ofCalifornia Press, 1993).
Sober, Elliott, ed. Conceptual Issues in EvolutionaryBiology (Bradford Books, 1993).
Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, …
David N. Livingstone, “Science, Region, and Religion: The Reception of Darwinism in Princeton, Belfast, and Edinburgh,” in , ed. Ronald L. Numbers and John Stenhouse (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 7-38
Relationship between religion and science - Wikipedia
From 1757 to 1947, India was under British colonial rule. This had aprofound influence on its culture. Hindus came into contact withWestern science and technology. For local intellectuals, the contactwith Western science presented a challenge: how to assimilate theseideas with their Hindu beliefs? Mahendrahal Sircar (1833–1904)was one of the first authors to examine evolutionary theory and itsimplications for Hindu religious beliefs. Sircar was an evolutionarytheist, who believed that God used evolution to create the currentlife forms. Evolutionary theism was not a new hypothesis in Hinduism,but the many lines of empirical evidence Darwin provided for evolutiongave it a fresh impetus. While Sircar accepted organic evolutionthrough common descent, he questioned the mechanism of naturalselection as it was not teleological, which went against hisevolutionary theism—this was a widespread problem for theacceptance of evolutionary theory, one that Christian evolutionarytheists also wrestled with (Bowler 2009). He also argued against theBritish colonists’ beliefs that Hindus were incapable ofscientific thought, and encouraged fellow Hindus to engage in science,which he hoped would help regenerate the Indian nation (C.M. Brown2012: chapter 6).
Essays about the work of Ken Wilber - Integral World
Often referred to as fundamentalists,confessionalists, or pietists, they denounced liberalism for being,as J G Machen put it, "Not Christianity at all, but a religionwhich is so entirely different from Christianity as to belong in adistinct category."Although the fundamentalist challenge was more or less beaten back,a more serious threat came from the sophisticated theologians ofneo - orthodoxy who called for the recovery of divine transcendenceand a realistic doctrine of sin.
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