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That night I lay and wished for none of what you tried togive me.
Justified criticism of Israel is not anti-semitism. There are thousands of Jews who are protesting against the barbarity of the ruling elite of the Israeli apartheid. So stop sounding so desperate to keep this doleful anti-semitism card alive. Even the Palestinians are Semites. The only people who will get excited after reading such material are the people who will do anything to hide or justify the crimes of the Israeli apartheid. Stop living in a fool’s paradise and raise your voice against a state which is doing its best to form yet another racist settler colony.
I had Jews for landlords in 1992. They alone had duplicate keys to my apartment (a requirement of local law). I came home one day, unlocked my door and found all my personal books gone — mostly rare books that took years to collect — cleaned out of two closets, along with a few personal files. Police refused to investigate, claiming that talking to the Jews about the “missing” books would be “harassment”! The Jews are thus protected, and I therefore have no rights.
16-04-2014 · Essay darkness terrified me ..
Until the 20th century, people had no idea how their activities impacted a portion of their environment that may end up hastening humanity’s demise more than self-made deserts: the atmosphere. Agriculture and civilization meant deforestation, and there is compelling evidence that the Domestication Revolution began altering the composition of Earth’s atmosphere from its earliest days. The natural trend of carbon dioxide decline was reversed beginning about 6000 BCE. Instead of declining from about 260 PPM at 6000 BCE to about 240 PPM today, which would have been the natural trend, it began rising and reached 275 PPM by about 3000 BCE. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were about 40 PPM higher than the natural trend would suggest. When a forest is razed and the resultant wood is burned, which is usually wood’s ultimate fate in civilizations, it liberated carbon that the tree absorbed from the atmosphere during . , and human activities began measurably adding methane to the atmosphere by about 3000 BCE, which coincided with the rise of the rice paddy system in China. In nature, methane is primarily produced by decaying vegetation in wetlands, both in the tropics and the Arctic, and human activities have increased wetlands even as they made other regions arid. Domestic grazing animals and human digestive systems also contribute to methane production. Atmospheric alteration by human activities has only come to public awareness in my lifetime, but human activities have had a measurable effect on greenhouse gases since the beginnings of civilization, even though the effects were modest compared to what has happened during the Industrial Revolution, as humans burn Earth’s hydrocarbon deposits with abandon.
One enduring question about civilization is “Why?” Why would somebody leave a village for a shortened life expectancy in a city? Ever since the ancient Greeks and , that question has been asked. There are two basic theoretical camps: one is integration theory, and the other is conflict theory. Integration theories have people moving to civilization because of the attendant benefits, which are obviously many. , of which was a proponent, have elites exploiting civilizations in service of greedy and vain motivations. Academics have written that integration theories account best for providing life’s necessities for the masses, which is why they migrate to civilizations, and conflict theories best explain elite appropriation of economic surpluses.
Fear - Throughout my life moments when I always seem to …
During the Cambrian Explosion, an ecosystem developed in which life on the sea floor, surface, and water column all interacted for the first time. All but one of were energy dynamics, as the environment provided either too much or too little energy, and the nutrient hypothesis () will be revisited numerous times in this essay. A lack of nutrients, mineral and otherwise, always meant that the energy-driven dynamics that delivered the nutrients were curtailed. If enough energy is properly applied, all nutrients can be abundant.
Recent environmental studies show that disturbed ecosystems can have cascading failures, as the removal of one part of a food chain can in , and entire ecosystems can go extinct. Cascades in today's world usually begin when the apex predator is removed (by humans, and called a ), but not always. Those cascading events can happen in aquatic and environments. Food chains are essentially energy chains , and the more complex they are, the more energy is required to sustain them. The leading hypothesis for why is also an energy-scarcity dynamic. Also, the most compelling findings that I have encountered regarding degenerative disease in humans shows that if individual cells no longer have their nutritional needs met by the organism, they stop acting out their role as specialized cells and “.” It may be difficult-to-impossible for scientists to reconstruct and test cascading failure hypotheses in ancient mass extinction events, but they may have played a major role in them, if not the dominant role.
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Together Always, in Darkness and in Light | MetaFilter
Because the Western Hemisphere’s inhabitants were virtually all in their Stone Age, they as greatly as Old World civilizations did, and many societies were environmentally sustainable and provided seeming answers to questions that scientists have asked about Old World civilizations’ development. The natives of coastal California were familiar with agriculture, as it was practiced by nearby inland tribes, but they never adopted it. California was so bountiful, and its climate was so human-friendly, that its natives retained their hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Similarly, northward on the Pacific Northwest's coast, natives created an economy in which half of its calories derived from salmon runs, and those peoples were relatively sedentary without agriculture. Natives turned the Great Plains into a big pasture for bison, and the biome was partly maintained by annual burning of the grasslands. In Mesoamerica, farming has been sustainable for thousands of years. In the Amazon, the natives transformed the rainforest, and a higher proportion of plants and trees provided human-digestible foods than in any other “wild” place on Earth, those natives also terraformed thin tropical soils with ceramics (maybe unintentional) and charcoals (intentional) and made super-soils called and . In summary, native practices in the Western Hemisphere were often sustainable if not quite abundant. But when civilizations arose, they had problems that were like their Old World counterparts'. Their problems were also environmental and not just the injustices of hierarchal societies, often steeply hierarchical.
Someone is always hiding something ..
The was merely the latest in a over several millennia, which likely influenced Amazonian cultures. While the markets in Aztec-run Tenochtitlán were incomparable and conquering Spaniards had an appreciation for the materialistic and greedy aspects of Aztec culture, Incan culture was another matter entirely. There were no vast markets in Incan society, but it was run more like a communist regime, with central planning of the economy. The Incas had ornate rituals combined with feasts and festivals, in which religion, warfare, economic reciprocity, and an elite-justifying ideology were inextricably linked, which formed the social cohesion of the empire. They naturally had human sacrifice to appease the gods in their Sun-worshipping imperial religion. The Incan Empire, which was the Western Hemisphere's largest, by far, stretched along the Andes Mountains for thousands of kilometers and was continually subjected to El Niño's vagaries. The Incas had novel means of dealing with it, including forming a vast network of storage facilities along the Incan "highway" on the Andes's high Western slopes, which like those took advantage of the "freezer effect" (and drying) of preserving food, and the Incas advertised their ability to provide for their subjects. The empire's taxation was often more in the form of services than food. Those peoples were arguably the greatest agricultural experimenters of pre-industrial peoples, getting the most out of their challenging environments.
I always knew you sort-of loved me ..
In the Eastern Woodlands of North America, natives began domesticating plants before 2500 BCE. It may well be an independent domestication event. Those horticulturalists largely became matrilineal societies. The was succeeded by the , in which maize seems to have made its way from Mesoamerica. Around 500 CE, the , the bow and arrow supplanted the spear and atlatl, and the "" - maize, beans, and squash - began dominating food production. When the began around 800 CE, intensive maize production began and spread, which led to rapid population growth and the rise of , which led to the only pre-Columbian North American city, at , which collapsed, almost certainly from environmental over-taxation and a cooling climate, before 1400 CE. The mound-building Mississippian culture had a familiar trajectory, as intensive agriculture led to an agricultural surplus. Men, who controlled the surplus and rose to dominance, commandeered the local religion into granting them divine status or sanction and erected monumental architecture to themselves and their divine yet invisible patrons. As in , they made their structures from earth instead of stone. Soil fertilization for maize-growing was not practiced, which rapidly depleted the soils (there were no domestic animals to provide manure, and the Indians did not adopt the night soil practices of East Asia), and the cooling of the , along with declining soil fertility, spelled the decline of Mississippian culture before Europe's first invasions of the Columbian era. The and its aftermath was a catastrophe for Mississippian peoples. Later European invaders . By the 1600s, when England began invading the Eastern Woodlands, the Mississippian culture had vanished, and by the late 1700s, the Southeastern Indians not only retained no memory of who made those mounds that they lived near, they also had no memory of the social order that built them. The Cherokee seemed to retain some vestigial memory of Mississippian culture, as they had stories of despotic Indians that the Cherokee annihilated, but the mounds had become the source of a myth that spirit warriors lived in the mounds and could issue forth and fight Cherokee enemies.
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